An annual plan has three training phases: Preparatory, Competitive and transition. The objective and characteristics of these paces remain the same whether you do them once or repeat them several times, as in a bi or tri-cycle. It is important to the athlete’s success that you follow the suggested duration, sequence, characteristics and emphasis on each training phase. this ensures that the highest athletic shape is reached for planned competitions.
Tudor O.Bompa, PhD
THE SEASON: THREE PHASES
Training seasons are usually divided into three phases:
> THE PRESEASON: the main coal of the preseason is to prepare athletes for upcoming competitions. This preparation includes physical, mental training and the development of skill. This phase is sometime s divided into two sub phases, a general and a specific phase.
> THE GENERAL PRESEASON SUB-PHASE: provides the groundwork for the in-season. this sub phase features a high volume of training, which lower intensity.
> THE SPECIFIC PRESEASON SUB PHASE: This sub phase acts as a transition into competition, and its main goal is to blend the various types of training. The volume of physical training usually remains high, but exercises become more specific. As the in-season approaches, technical and tactical work become more like that required in competition, and intensity get closer to the level competition calls for.
> THE IN-SEASON: is the competitive part of the season. The primary goal of this phase is to stabilize athletes’ performance. in some cases, the in-season is further subdivided – into a pre-competitive and a main competitive sub phase
> THE PRE-COMPETITIVE SUB PHASE: competition are less important than they are in the main competitive sub phase. athletes use competitions to fine-tune training and to find out how ready they really are. This sub phase give athletes time to take all the skills and abilities developed in the preseason and incorporate them into competitive performance. Performance may be somewhat inconsistent during this period, and adaptation to the competitive situation is constantly occurring.
> THE MAIN COMPETITIVE SUB-PHASE: In this sub phase, the focus is on result – the goal is maximum performance. The intensity of training stays high, and the stress of competition is also high; training volume decrease to accommodate this level of intensity. This part of the training season also features short period of active rest. In these periods, the main focus is on recovering from the stress of competition while staying active. Such rest improves athletes’ ability to perform at their peak.
> THE POSTSEASON: is also referred to as the off season. the goal of this phase is to maintain fitness and to rehabilitate any lingering injuries. The focus is on general physical activity – athletes may participate in activities similar to those of their sport, but they must avoid specialization. The intensity of training is low; volume may also be low – after all, athletes are still recovering form the in-season.